Perceptions of gender equality in post-crisis Europe

Natalia Soboleva

Abstract


The paper aims to compare the perceptions of gender equality of individuals more or less affected by economic crisis in Europe. Crisis touched the economy of most European countries but to a different extent. Special focus is given to the perceptions of gender equality of vulnerable groups (female, lesser-educated, one-adult households with children). The data is Eurobarometer 2011. The sample is limited to respondents aged 18-65. According to the results of multilevel regression analysis, those who have suffered from crisis assess lower the current level of gender equality whereas perceptions of gender equality do not differ depending on the effect of crisis upon the country. Women assess gender equality more positively compared to men. Those who live in one-adult households with children have higher perceptions of gender equality compared to those who live in other types of households. The discrepancy between lesser-educated and higher educated is larger in countries that suffered less from crisis. However, when the change in GDP per capita is taken as a measure of crisis the effects for family structure and education are not robust.


Keywords


Gender equality; economic crisis; cross-cultural comparison; Europe; vulnerable groups

Full Text:

PDF

References


Albright, J. J., & Marinova, D. M. (2010). Estimating multilevel models using SPSS, Stata, SAS, and R. Retrieved from http://www.iub.edu/~statmath/stat/all/hlm/hlm.pdf.

Alesina, A., Giuliano, P., & Nunn, N. (2013). The origins of gender roles: women and the plough. The Quarterly Journal of Economics 128 (2), 469-529. https://doi.org/10.1093/qje/qjt005

Alwin, D. F., Braun, M., & Scott, J. (1992). The separation of work and the family: Attitudes towards women’s labour-force participation in Germany, Great Britain, and the United States. European Sociological Review 8(1), 13-37. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.esr.a036620

Bergh, J. (2006). Gender attitudes and modernization processes. International Journal of Public Opinion Research 19(1), 5-23. https://doi.org/10.1093/ijpor/edl004

Bettio, F., & Verashchagina, A. (2014). Women and men in the ‘Great European Recession’, in M. Karamessini & J. Rubery (Eds.), Women and Austerity. The Economic Crisis and the Future for Gender Equality (pp. 57-81). London, UK: Routledge.

Bolzendahl, C., & Myers, D. J. (2004). Feminist attitudes and support for gender equality: opinion change in women and men, 1974-1998. Social Forces 83 (2), 759-790. https://doi.org/10.1353/sof.2005.0005

Braun, M., & and Gloekner-Rist, A. (2011). Perceived consequences of female labor-force participation. A multilevel latent-class analysis across 22 countries. Obets. Revista de Ciencias Sociales 6(2), 163-184. https://doi.org/10.14198/OBETS2011.6.2.01

Campa, P., Casarico, A., & Profeta, P. (2009). Gender culture and gender gap in employment. Econpubblica Centre for Research on the Public Sector Working Paper No. 143. Milano: Università Commerciale Luigi Bocconi.

Cunningham, M. (2008). Family model: influences of women's employment and education over the life course. Social Forces 87(1), 299-323. https://doi.org/10.1353/sof.0.0097

Eagly, A. H., & Karau, S. J. (2002). Role congruity theory of prejudice toward female leaders. Psychological Review 109, 573 – 598. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.109.3.573

Elson, D. (2010). Gender and the global economic crisis in developing countries: a framework for analysis. Gender & Development 18(2), 201-212. https://doi.org/10.1080/13552074.2010.491321

European Commission, and European Parliament (2013). Eurobarometer 76.1: Financial and Economic Crisis, Financial Services, Corruption, Development Aid, and Gender Equality, September 2011. ICPSR34552-v2. Cologne, Germany: GESIS/Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributors]. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR34552.v2

Fortin, N. M. (2005). Gender role attitudes and the labour-market outcomes of women across OECD Countries. Oxford Review of Economic Policy 21(3), 416-438. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxrep/gri024

Guiso, L., Sapienza, P., & Zingales, L. (2003). People’s Opium. The effect of religion on economic attitudes. Journal of Monetary Economics 50, 225–282. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3932(02)00202-7

Guveli, A., Need, A., & and De Graaf, N. D. (2007). Socio-political, cultural and economic preferences and behaviour of the social and cultural specialists and the technocrats. Social class or education? Social Indicators Research 81, 597–631. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-006-9000-7

Hox, J. J. (2010). Multilevel Analysis. Techniques and Applications. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Inglehart, R. F., Foa, R., Ponarin, E., & Welzel, C. P. (2013). Understanding the Russian malaise: the collapse and recovery of subjective well-being in post-communist Russia. WP BRP Working paper No. 32, Higher School of Economics, Series: sociology.

Inglehart, R. F., & Welzel, C. P. (2005). Modernization, Cultural Change and Democracy, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511790881

Karamessini, M., & Rubery, J., (2014). Economic crisis and austerity: challenges to gender equality. In M. Karamessini, & J. Rubery (Eds.), Women and Austerity. The Economic Crisis and the Future for Gender Equality (pp. 314-351). London and New York: Routledge.

Kroska, A. (1997). The division of labor in the home: A review and conceptualization. Social Psychology Quarterly 60, 304 – 322. https://doi.org/10.2307/2787092

OECD (2012). Closing the Gender Gap: Act Now. OECD Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1787/9789264179370-en

Pampel, F. (2011). Cohort changes in the socio-demographic determinants of gender egalitarianism. Social Forces 89, 961-982. https://doi.org/10.1353/sof.2011.0011

Rubery, J. (2014). From ‘women and recession’ to ‘women and austerity’: a framework of analysis. In M. Karamessini, & J. Rubery (Eds.), Women and Austerity. The Economic Crisis and the Future for Gender Equality (pp. 17-36). London and New York: Routledge.

Seguino, S. (2009). The global economic crisis, its gender implications and policy responses. Paper prepared for Gender Perspectives on the Financial Crisis Panel, at the Fifty-Third Session of the Commission on the Status of Women, United Nations. Retrieved from https://vip2.uvm.edu/~sseguino/pdf/global_crisis.pdf

Snijders, T. A. B., & Bosker, R. J. (1999). Multilevel Analysis. An Introduction to Basic and Advanced Multilevel Modeling. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Stickney, L. T., & Konrad, A. K. (2007). Gender-role attitudes and earnings: A multinational study of married women and men. Sex Roles 57, 801- 811. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-007-9311-4

The World Bank (2016). World Bank Open Data. Available at http://data.worldbank.org/indicator

Voicu, M., & Tufis, P.A. (2012). Trends in gender beliefs in Romania: 1993–2008. Current Sociology 60(1), 61-80. https://doi.org/10.1177/0011392111426648

Voicu, M., & Constantin, A. (2013). Unemployment and attitudes towards gender equality. Presentation at the 3rd International workshop of the LCSR, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.

Voicu, M., & Constantin, A. (2016). Couple's status on labour market and their attitudes towards gender roles. Revista de Cercetare si Interventie Sociala 54, 7-22.

Walby, S. (2015). Gender and the crisis. Contested transformations of the gender regime. Presentation at the 3rd Equal is not enough Conference, Antwerp, Belgium.

Welzel, C. P. (2013). Freedom Rising Human Empowerment and the Quest for Emancipation, Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139540919

West, C., & Zimmerman, D. H. (1987). Doing gender. Gender and Society 1(2), 125-151. https://doi.org/10.1177/0891243287001002002


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

RepecSparc EuropeCOREEconBib